How long should I cure (keep the plastic, straw, blankets, water, etc) on my concrete (driveway, sidewalk, slab, etc.)?

This question can only be answered by the professionals associated with the project. Concrete cures at different rates depending on the constituent ingredients and the ambient conditions it is exposed to. Your contractor (concrete supplier) should know what sort of curing is required for the particular mix being used. Also, by following their recommendation, you maintain whatever warranty that might be associated with the work performed. If there is a problem that occurs later on, they can’t blame you for not curing it properly if you did it according to their instructions.